What is the diabetic foot?
Diabetic foot is an ulceration of the tissues that make up the foot in patients with Diabetes Mellitus. It is one of the different complications that people with diabetes can have. The diabetic neuropathy, in fact, is the first initiation factor ulcer (along with minor trauma and deformities of the foot). Diabetic foot ulcerations are normally easily infected and this, together with circulation problems and involvement of nerves and blood vessels, contributes less blood to the tissues, which can lead to gangrene. Without proper diabetic foot treatment in Delhi, this can lead to the need to amputate, in extreme cases.
Prognosis of the disease
An early diagnosis and diabetic foot treatment in Rohini, Pitampura, Delhi is very important, since it can lead to a worse ulceration and even to have to amputate the limb, in case of gangrene. Also, early diagnosis is important because more than half of patients may have no symptoms. In fact, the diabetic foot can be considered a prognostic marker of the disease.
In the prognosis of the diabetic foot, whether favorable or not, it is essential to determine the arterial situation of the limb, that is, if the patient has developed concomitant angiopathy and does not have a pulse in the foot, the chances of cure are less. On the other hand, if it is a neuropathy and the “foot” pulse is palpable, local cures can be applied and the prognosis will not be so negative.
Diabetic foot symptoms
The main symptom of diabetic foot is the appearance of wounds and ulcers on the foot , which must be controlled and especially cared for. In addition to this, the usual symptoms of diabetic foot are:
- Tingling and cramps
- Absence of sensation in the feet
- Converting wounds to ulcers
The most important risk for diabetic patients is decreased sensation and poor circulation in the foot. This can lead to ulcers (some serious), which will be the main cause of possible amputations. Most wounds are caused because there is a decrease in sensitivity in the foot, and they usually appear on the sole of the foot or in areas close to the bone (knuckles and fingers, especially). Therefore, if a diabetic patient sees that he has an ulcer, he should go to a specialist immediately and get diabetic foot treatment in Pitampura, Delhi.
What are the causes of diabetic foot?
Diabetic foot appears when blood glucose levels are inadequate, as well as other factors that tend to occur in many diabetic patients ( high blood pressure , hypercholesterolemia …). All of this leads to damage to blood vessels and nerves, which can lead to lower extremity complications.
There are several factors that can affect the diabetic foot. Basically they are: peripheral neuropathy, a peripheral vascular disease and inmunoopatía.
Thus, peripheral neuropathy is the most important cause of diabetic foot. It affects the sensory nerves (alters peripheral sensitivity to painful stimuli) and also motor nerves , atrophying the muscles of the foot (deforming it), causing hammer toes, hallux valgus or claw toes. Autonomic neuropathy is also added here, which, by causing a decrease in sweating, leads to dry skin, hyperkeratosis or calluses and cracks.
Peripheral vascular disease in diabetic people manifests with arteriosclerotic lesions in various arterial regions. In this way, the arteries of the lower extremities most affected are the tibial and deep femoral arteries. Another characteristic is the calcification that occurs in the arterial middle layer, which does not obstruct but does produce alterations.
On the other hand, diabetic microangiopathy is another determining factor in diabetic foot ischemia. However, recent studies have shown that it is not obstructive but functional, so it can promote infection but is not decisive in ischemia of the affected limb.
Regarding the immunopathy of the patient with diabetes, it refers to the alteration of the leukocyte function, as a consequence of hyperglycemia. This favors the infection of the ulcers.
Diabetic foot treatment in Delhi
Treatment of foot ulceration in diabetic patients should initially be directed against its cause, specifically against pressure. Plantar pressure relief can be achieved with bed rest and avoiding foot support.
In addition to pressure relief, the ulcer should be debrided regularly, with the removal of all callus and non-viable tissue formed around the ulcer. This facilitates the formation of a wound with healthy granulation tissue that heals from the base and not merely from the edges.
A wound is repaired as a result of an orchestration of highly integrated cellular and biochemical responses to an injury.
The main goal of treating foot ulcers is to achieve healing as soon as possible. The faster the healing, the lower the chance of infection.
Not all ulcers become infected; However, if your doctor diagnoses you with an infection, a program of antibiotics, wound care, and probably hospitalization will be necessary.
For optimal healing, pressure should be removed from the ulcers, particularly those on the soles of the feet. Patients should be asked to use special footwear, a brace, specialized casts, a wheelchair, or crutches. These devices will reduce pressure and irritation in the ulcer area, speeding up the healing process.
Proper wound management includes the use of dressings and the topical application of medications. These medications range from saline to cutting-edge products like growth factors, ulcer dressings, and skin substitutes, which have proven to be very effective in healing ulcers.
There are several key factors in the proper diabetic foot treatment in Delhi such as:
Take pressure off the area.
The removal of skin and tissue from the fingers, which is known as “debridement.”
Place medications or dressings on the ulcer.
Control blood glucose (blood glucose level) and other health problems.
For a wound to heal, there must be adequate blood circulation to the ulcerated area. The podiatrist can determine the level of circulation with non-invasive tests.
In addition, the control of risk factors is essential for the improvement of the patient (control of insulin levels, smoking cessation, control of cholesterol and triglyceride levels). Educating the person about their disease and making them understand the risk they run if they do not maintain control of diabetes, visits to a dietitian to make a nutritional plan, to the endocrinologist to manage their insulin levels, routine visits to the plastic surgeon in Delhi. The application of footwear and orthopedic treatments are used to reduce pressure on the foot and alleviate the ambulation of the diabetic.
Develop a walking-based exercise program to improve the patient’s tolerance to ambulation and to improve limb blood distribution allowing patients with arterial insufficiency to remain active.
To prevent foot injuries, diabetics should adopt a daily routine of checking and caring for their feet, as follows:
Check your feet every day and report any ulcers, changes, or signs of infection.
Wash your feet every day with warm water and a mild soap and then dry them very well.
Soften dry skin with lotion or petroleum jelly.
Protect your feet with comfortable shoes that are not tight.
Exercise daily to promote good circulation.
Visit a plastic surgeon in Delhi to identify foot problems or remove calluses or bumps on the feet.
Stop smoking, as tobacco use worsens blood flow to the feet.
Tight glycemic control is of utmost importance during the diabetic foot treatment in Rohini, Pitampura, Delhi. Work together with a general practitioner or endocrinologist to promote healing and reduce the risk of complications.
Most uninfected foot ulcers are not treated surgically; however, when treatments fail, surgery may be appropriate. Examples of surgical care to take pressure off the affected area include scraping or excising bone and correcting various deformities, such as hammer toes, bunions, or bony “bumps.”
The healing time depends on a number of factors, such as the size and location of the wound, the pressure exerted on it when walking or standing, inflammation, circulation, blood glucose, wound care and what it is being applied to him. Healing can take weeks or take several months.
The best way to treat a diabetic foot ulcer is to prevent it from forming. One of the recommendations is to see a plastic surgeon in Punjabi Bagh regularly. The plastic surgeon will be able to determine if you are at high risk of developing a foot ulcer and discuss preventive strategies.
In the acute phase, diabetic foot treatment in Pitampura, Delhi includes rest with the limb raised, good glycemic and metabolic control, medications to relieve pain and antibiotics according to the sensitivity of the causative organisms. The key to glycemic control will be the use of insulin.
Charcot’s foot is treated with the application of a contact boot. In the initial phases it is done with plaster and later with orthopedic devices, made to measure to avoid pressure and redistribute the load, minimizing the weight on the injured area.
In the chronic phase, when ulcers or open injuries have healed, the most important thing is to prevent recurrences, observing all indications and emphasizing footwear care, avoiding excessive support points in previously injured areas and minimizing the risks of injury.
Diabetic foot is a disease that affects thousands of people around the world. So far, as with diabetes, there is no definitive solution, although the risks of suffering from the disease can be minimized.
The best treatment is preventive, that is, it is very important that patients suffering from diabetes mellitus follow their doctor’s recommendations to the letter, both with regard to diet and the prescribed medications.